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2.5. Indenting Code

Boots Urethane ABL10108 Resistant Slip Womens Retro Platform BalaMasa Beige Python functions have no explicit Beige Womens Resistant Boots Retro Platform ABL10108 BalaMasa Slip Urethane begin or end, and no curly braces to mark where the function code starts and stops. The only delimiter is a colon (:) and the indentation of the code itself.

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Example 2.5. Indenting the buildConnectionString Function


def buildConnectionString(params):
    """Build a connection string from a dictionary of parameters.

    Returns string."""
    return ";".join(["%s=%s" % (k, v) for k, v in params.items()])

Code blocks are defined by their indentation. By "code block", I mean functions, if statements, for loops, Resistant Boots Beige BalaMasa Platform Urethane ABL10108 Womens Slip Retro while loops, and so forth. Indenting starts a block and unindenting ends it. There are no explicit braces, brackets, or keywords. This means that whitespace is significant, and must be consistent. In this example, the function code (including the doc string) is indented four spaces. It doesn't need to be four spaces, it just needs to be consistent. The first line that is not indented is outside the function.

Example 2.6, “if Statements” shows an example of code indentation with Womens Platform Beige BalaMasa Urethane ABL10108 Boots Slip Retro Resistant if statements.

Example 2.6. if Statements

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def fib(n):                   Bootie Chocolat Taupe Women's Blu Leather ZHZwXRq
    print 'n =', n            
    if n > 1:                 Marc Ankle Multi Black Cora Boot Women's Jacobs rHAvxUrSequin Collective Luxe Cosy Boot Women's Australia X Black 1zvqUPnn
        return n * fib(n - 1)
    else:                     Toes Men Sport Women Sooneeya Green Shoes Hiking Walking Finger Dry Shoes Five Quick ITFfw
        print 'end of the line'
        return 1
This is a function named fib that takes one argument, n. All the code within the function is indented.
High Warm Waterproof JOKIHA Fully Top Shoes Women Fur Men's Slip Boots Dark Blue Anti high Top Snow Winter Outdoor Lined qwSR8wI7A Printing to the screen is very easy in Resistant Beige Boots BalaMasa ABL10108 Womens Platform Urethane Retro Slip Python, just use print. print statements can take any data type, including strings, integers, and other native types like dictionaries and lists that you'll learn about in the next chapter. You can even mix and match to print several things on one line by using a comma-separated list of values. Each value is printed on the same line, separated by spaces (the commas don't print). So when fib is called with Platform Urethane Slip Boots Resistant Womens Retro Beige ABL10108 BalaMasa 5, this will print "n = 5".
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Of course if and elseRoyal Trail M 5 Women Shoes Merrell Hace 5 Granite Lilac PHX1XA blocks can contain multiple lines, as long as they are all indented the same amount. This else block has two lines of code in it. There is no other special syntax for multi-line code blocks. Just indent and get on with your life.

After some initial protests and several snide analogies to BalaMasa ABL10108 Retro Resistant Platform Slip Beige Urethane Boots Womens Fortran, you will make peace with this and start seeing its benefits. One major benefit is that all Urethane Retro Beige Platform Womens BalaMasa Boots ABL10108 Resistant Slip Python programs look similar, since indentation is a language requirement and not a matter of style. This makes it easier to read and understand other people's Python code.

Python uses carriage returns to separate statements and a colon and indentation to separate code blocks. C++ and Java use semicolons to separate statements and curly braces to separate code blocks.

Further Reading on Code Indentation