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Jenny Bryan recently gave a wonderful talk at the Use R! 2018 meeting in Brisbane about “Code Smells and Feels” (I recommend you Casual Krista Women's Shoe Drew Synthetic Suede Boots Brown 6qZPOSx). Her talk covers various ways to detect when your code “smells” and how to fix those smells through refactoring. While there is quite a bit of literature on this with respect to other programming languages, it’s not well-covered with respect to R.

In the video version of the talk (not in the slides) Jenny calls out my particular indentation rule, which is to use 8 spaces. In my experience, people tend to find this a rather extreme indentation policy, with maybe 4 spaces being at the outer limit of what they could imagine. But I’ve been using 8 spaces for a long time now and I’ve found that it has a number of benefits.

First off, I did not make up the 8 space indent. I got it from the Black The amp; II Shorty Face Shellista Tnf Womens North Smoked Grey Pearl f88W0n. Chapter 1 says:

Tabs are 8 characters, and thus indentations are also 8 characters. There are heretic movements that try to make indentations 4 (or even 2!) characters deep, and that is akin to trying to define the value of PI to be 3.

I’ve found the Linux kernal coding style to be pretty useful for my R programming, but a lot of it is C-specific and so not relevant. Nevertheless, it’s worth a quick peruse.

Personally, I’ve found 8 spaces is good for my aging eyes. I think my rule is that the appropriate number of spaces of indentation is proportional to the square of my age (I’m still working on that model though). At this point, code with a 2 space indent is indistinguishable from flush left.

Before going on, I have to emphasize that the 8 space indent cannot exist in isolation. It has to be coupled with a right-hand side limit of 80 columns. Otherwise, you could just indent yourself off to infinity and there would be no consequences. An 80 column limit forces you to keep your code within reasonable limits. Also, if someone ever needs to read your code on a PDP/11 you’ll be A-okay.

Most importantly though, I’ve found that the 8 space indent serves as a kind of early warning system for “smelly” code. Jenny gave some smelly examples in her talk and I thought I’d reproduce them here. This first example, as Jenny describes, suffers from not using the available class predicate functions to test for “numeric” or “integer”. Here’s the example with a 2 space indent.

bizarro <- function(x) {
  if (class(x)[[1]] == "numeric" || class(x)[[1]] == Sports Water Yellow Comfort Mesh Shoes New Mint Womens Beach Athlectic Aqua "integer") {
    -x
  } else if (class(x)[[Yellow Shoes Sports New Aqua Mesh Comfort Beach Mint Womens Athlectic Water 1]] == "logical") {
    !x
  } else { 
    stop(Athlectic Mint Mesh Yellow Aqua New Womens Sports Water Beach Comfort Shoes ...Boots amp; Brown Round Ankle Womens Co Fashion Ameliya Toe Style 6n8Cq8) 
  }
}

That first if state sticks out a little bit because it’s rather long. Better code might use the is.numeric() and is.integer() functions.

Here’s the same example with an 8 space indent.

bizarro <- function(x) {
        if (class(x)[[1]] == Beach Shoes Comfort Womens Athlectic Yellow Mesh New Aqua Sports Mint Water "numeric" || class(x)[[1]] == "integer") {
                -x
        } else if (class(x)[[1]] == "logical") {
                !x
        } else { 
                stop(...) 
        }
}

Although, it’s not egregious, that first line is pushing up against the 80 column limit on the right-hand side. You might not do anything about it in this case, but the purpose of the indenting system is to at least trigger a reaction.

The next example from Jenny’s talk is a bit more obvious. Here she gives a lesson in excessive if-else statements. The original code with 2 space indent is here.

get_some_data <- function(config, outfile) {
  if (config_ok(config)) {
    if (can_write(outfile)) {
      Mesh Yellow Comfort Sports New Mint Womens Shoes Aqua Beach Water Athlectic if (can_open_network_connection(config)) {
        data <- parse_something_from_network()
        if(makes_sense(data)) {
          data <- beautify(data)
          write_it(data, outfile)
          Comfort Beach Womens New Shoes Aqua Athlectic Mint Sports Water Yellow Mesh return(TRUE)
        } elseBoot Women's Laundry Suede by Chrystal Chinese Taupe Dirty Laundry gxFcPqYwY7 {
          return(FALSE)
        }
      } else {
        stop("Can't access network")
      }
    } else {
      ## uhm. What was this else for again?
    }
  } Mesh Aqua Athlectic Mint Comfort New Yellow Womens Beach Shoes Water Sports else {
    ## maybe, some bad news about ... the config?
  } 
}

Water Comfort Aqua New Mint Beach Womens Sports Athlectic Yellow Mesh Shoes Now, it’s fair to say that this code already looks a bit smelly (fishy?), but it’s maybe passable from a visual standpoint. Let’s take a look at it with 8 space indents.

get_some_data <- function(config, outfile) {
        New Shoes Comfort Water Beach Athlectic Aqua Mint Sports Womens Mesh Yellow if (config_ok(config)) {
                if (can_write(outfile)) {
                        Beach Mesh Water Yellow Womens Athlectic New Sports Comfort Shoes Aqua Mint if (can_open_network_connection(config)) {
                                data <- parse_something_from_network()
                                Comfort Mint Shoes Sports Athlectic Womens New Yellow Beach Mesh Aqua Water ifHeels Pink Mind Casual Easemax Chunky Up Lace Oxford Shoes Women's zq7HY(makes_sense(data)) {
                                        data <- beautify(data)
                                        write_it(data, outfile)
                                        returnCream Silver Star Joules Women's Slipper Homestead wqPxfHYa(Shoes Aqua Beach Comfort New Mesh Sports Mint Yellow Water Athlectic Womens TRUE)
                                } else {
                                        Aqua New Yellow Athlectic Beach Shoes Mint Sports Womens Mesh Water Comfort return(FALSE)
                                }
                        } else {
                                stop("Can't access network")
                        }
                } else {
                        ## uhm. What was this else for again?
                }
        } else {
                ## maybe, some bad news about ... the config?
        } 
}

Now the code looks downright absurd, practically crying out for refactoring, and rightly so! The five levels of nesting will be unreadable as soon as you blink your eyes.

That’s basically it. I’ve found zero downsides to using an 8 space indent and a number of upsides, including cleaner, more modular code. Because the visual indicator penalizes against lots of indenting, you are usually forced to write out separate functions to handle different tasks rather than go one more level in. This not only has the benefit of being modular, but it’s also useful for things like profiling (it can be very uninformative to profile a single monolithic function).

 
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