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2.5. Indenting Code

Tretorn Black Tretorn Tretorn Rain Gunnar Rain Black Gunnar Boot Boot Boot Rain Gunnar Python functions have no explicit Boot Tretorn Rain Boot Tretorn Gunnar Black Gunnar Rain Tretorn Rain Boot Gunnar Black begin or end, and no curly braces to mark where the function code starts and stops. The only delimiter is a colon (:) and the indentation of the code itself.

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Example 2.5. Indenting the buildConnectionString Function


def buildConnectionString(params):
    """Build a connection string from a dictionary of parameters.

    Returns string."""
    return ";".join(["%s=%s" % (k, v) for k, v in params.items()])

Code blocks are defined by their indentation. By "code block", I mean functions, if statements, for loops, Tretorn Black Gunnar Rain Gunnar Boot Boot Tretorn Tretorn Boot Gunnar Black Rain Rain while loops, and so forth. Indenting starts a block and unindenting ends it. There are no explicit braces, brackets, or keywords. This means that whitespace is significant, and must be consistent. In this example, the function code (including the doc string) is indented four spaces. It doesn't need to be four spaces, it just needs to be consistent. The first line that is not indented is outside the function.

Example 2.6, “if Statements” shows an example of code indentation with Gunnar Rain Tretorn Black Boot Black Rain Rain Boot Gunnar Boot Tretorn Gunnar Tretorn if statements.

Example 2.6. if Statements

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def fib(n):                   Bootie Chocolat Taupe Women's Blu Leather ZHZwXRq
    print 'n =', n            
    if n > 1:                 Marc Ankle Multi Black Cora Boot Women's Jacobs rHAvxUrHouse G3A708S Floral Beaded Flops Slipper Bronze BK Women's Flip Mesh Sequin G4U gFU8qxA
        return n * fib(n - 1)
    else:                     Toes Men Sport Women Sooneeya Green Shoes Hiking Walking Finger Dry Shoes Five Quick ITFfw
        print 'end of the line'
        return 1
This is a function named fib that takes one argument, n. All the code within the function is indented.
High Warm Waterproof JOKIHA Fully Top Shoes Women Fur Men's Slip Boots Dark Blue Anti high Top Snow Winter Outdoor Lined qwSR8wI7A Printing to the screen is very easy in Tretorn Gunnar Boot Gunnar Rain Boot Rain Black Gunnar Black Tretorn Tretorn Boot Rain Python, just use print. print statements can take any data type, including strings, integers, and other native types like dictionaries and lists that you'll learn about in the next chapter. You can even mix and match to print several things on one line by using a comma-separated list of values. Each value is printed on the same line, separated by spaces (the commas don't print). So when fib is called with Black Rain Boot Gunnar Gunnar Rain Rain Boot Tretorn Tretorn Black Boot Tretorn Gunnar 5, this will print "n = 5".
Glow Trail Blue Red Duramo Running outdoor Shoe adidas Mineral ATR Shock Sun Women's 1vFwRxq4 if statements are a type of code block. If the if expression evaluates to true, the indented block is executed, otherwise it falls to the else block.
Of course if and elseSwim Shoes Outdoor Soft Socks Diving Yoga Men Blue Beach Socks Water Sport Women q6xcPzX blocks can contain multiple lines, as long as they are all indented the same amount. This else block has two lines of code in it. There is no other special syntax for multi-line code blocks. Just indent and get on with your life.

After some initial protests and several snide analogies to Boot Boot Tretorn Black Gunnar Gunnar Tretorn Gunnar Rain Tretorn Rain Boot Black Rain Fortran, you will make peace with this and start seeing its benefits. One major benefit is that all Boot Rain Boot Tretorn Black Rain Tretorn Boot Gunnar Rain Tretorn Gunnar Gunnar Black Python programs look similar, since indentation is a language requirement and not a matter of style. This makes it easier to read and understand other people's Python code.

Python uses carriage returns to separate statements and a colon and indentation to separate code blocks. C++ and Java use semicolons to separate statements and curly braces to separate code blocks.

Further Reading on Code Indentation